I've posted a snippet query to the PostgreSQL Wiki that "summarizes the keyspace" of a target B-Tree index. This means that it displays which range of indexed values belong on each page, starting from the root. It requires pageinspect. The query recursively performs a breadth-first search. Along the way, it also displays information about the space utilization of each page, and the number of distinct key values that actually exist on the page, allowing you to get a sense of how densely filled each page is relative to what might be expected.
The query is available from: